Speciality addressing issues and conditions of the vascular system, namely veins and arteries. A vascular surgeon performs procedures to facilitate blood flow of narrowed or blocked blood vessels, due to e.g. atherosclerotic plaques, deep vein thrombosis and malformations. Other procedures include treatment of aneurysms, venous diseases (bulges, varicose veins), renovascular hypertension, etc. Common procedures are angioplasty (unblocking a blocked vessel by inserting a wire), stenting (introduction of a cage in the area of vessel narrowing), embolectomy (removal of clots), bypass surgery (transplant of a vein or artery to overcome the blockage such as for the coronary arteries of the heart.